DESIGNED BY A FAMOUS NAVAL ARCHITECT (right). The Ogre, the ship in which Ralph Stock, with his sister and a friend, sailed to the Pacific, was laid out by the late Colin Archer, who drew up the plans of the Fram for Nansen, the Polar explorer. The Ogre had originally been built to serve as a lifeboat for the North Sea fishing fleet, and was sold to a man who fitted he out as a yacht.
Passenger and Cargo Liner
The opening of the Panama Canal introduced many new trade routes, in particular that for the carriage of merchandise between the Pacific Coast of North America and the United Kingdom and the Continent. This route has grown in the last few years, and special vessels have been built to carry the grain and lumber of the northern ports and the fresh fruit of California. The Canada, shown below, one of the latest of these dual-cargo ships, is one of the most powerful single-screw ships afloat. In addition to her comprehensive cargo-carrying arrangements, of which no fewer than 150,000 cubic feet are insulated for fresh fruit, she has luxury
accommodation for fifty-six passengers. Her length is 465 feet between perpendiculars, her beam moulded 64 feet and her depth to main deck 31 feet, to shelter deck 40 feet.
Her single screw is turned at 105 revolutions a minute by a big six-cylinder double-acting two-cycle diesel engine of Burmeister and Wain type, having a cylinder diameter of 680 mm and a stroke of 1,400 mm. This engine develops 8,400 ihp, and gives the ship when fully loaded a speed of 14¾ knots.
The Canada is given a modern appearance by a raking stem, a cruiser stern and two squat funnels. Her tonnage is 11,108, and her owners are the Danish East Asiatic Company.
ROTOR TOWERS. Herr Anton Flettner’s idea was to use rotor towers as a substitute for sails in coasting vessels. His object was to take better advantage of the wind as an auxiliary to a ship’s engines, and thus obtain higher speeds with the same horse-power. Right is the Barbara, the first rotor ship to be built as such. Ordered by the German naval authorities he was constructed at Bremen. She was a single-screw ship of 2,077 gross tons, and was propelled by two six cylinder diesel engines.
(Left) FROM THE DEEP. A massive piece of wreckage torn away from the Laurentic by explosives during the hunt for the lost gold bars. It was the practice to shackle a wire rope to the end of a broken plate and to haul from the surface so as to bend the plate away from the hull as far as possible, then finally to sever it by a charge of explosive. This difficult and dangerous work was undertaken by men of the Royal Navy.
House Flags and Funnels
The fascinating story of historic house flags and funnels by Boyd Cable. In this article he describes the many-coloured devices and coats of arms which merchant vessels have borne throughout the history of maritime trade. This chapter deals not only with the flags of modern steamship companies, but also with those of the pioneers of merchant shipping. Much of the material of this chapter has not been published previously, and is the outcome of long and extensive research by the author.
Standard Heraldic Colour Key
(Above) THE STANDARD HERALDIC COLOUR KEY, below the funnels, indicates the colours of those shown above and elsewhere in this chapter. The drawings are almost certainly by
K M Sibley.
Historic Flags and Funnels
(Below) The double-page centre-spread colour plate which appeared between pages 404-405 of this article. It comprises a total of 60 individual flags and funnels with a numbered key. The flags range from (1) the Levant Company of 1581 (left-hand page, upper left) to
(20) Nicholson of Annan after 1860 (left-hand page, lower right); and from (21) the McCunn Company (right-hand page, top left) to (60) the Anchor Line (right-hand page, lower right). The illustration is by K M Sibley.
(between pages 404-405)
In the Sailing Ship’s Forecastle
The “shell-back” - or forecastle-hand of sailing ship days - was a product of the conditions in which he worked and lived. He was hardy and courageous by nature, and the circumstances of his life made him accept extreme discomfort with comparative indifference. This chapter is by Frank Bowen.
(Left) GOING ALOFT. However uncomfortable the forecastle may appear to the landsman, it is a welcome refuge to the forecastle-hand after a long spell in the rigging. The photograph shows the Invercauld, a three-masted barque of 1,416 gross tons, which was sunk in 1916.
The Invercauld is also illustrated in the article on “The Plucky Penshurst” in part 40.
With the Fleet at Sea
A first-hand account of a trip in the English Channel and North Sea in a battleship engaged on peace-time manoeuvres.
The article is by Hector Bywater and is the fourth in the series on
(Right) IN HEAVY SEAS. A remarkable view of HM destroyer Sturdy during manoeuvres. This vessel of 905 tons, with an overall length of 276 feet, is now without armament and is used as a tender to the aircraft carrier Furious. Propelled by geared turbines, she has a designed shp of 27,000 and a speed of 36 knots.
The Call of Adventure
THE CALL OF ADVENTURE summoned Sir Ernest Shackleton south again in 1914. This was five years after the conclusion of his 1907-1909 expedition to the Antarctic in the Nimrod, shown in this photograph. For his 1914 expedition Shackleton took a new ship, the Endurance. A second vessel, the Aurora, was intended to act as a supply ship for the latter part of the proposed trans-Antarctic journey.