For our cover this week I have chosen a beautiful picture of the Joseph Conrad leaving Sydney. She is a full-rigged ship of 203 tons, and was built in 1882. Originally named the Georg Stage, she was for many years a Danish training ship, and further particulars of her will be found in the chapter Training in
PROHIBITION in the United States and the equable climate of Bermuda combined during the boom period to make that island one of the favourite playgrounds of the Wealthy New Yorker. Its popularity has changed the status of the 700-miles run between Ambrose Channel, New York, and Fort Hamilton, Bermuda. Formerly the normal passenger-, mail- and cargo-services were all that was necessary on this route. Now, despite financial vicissitudes, the route supports two of the most luxurious electric passenger liners in the world. They form an important merchant-ship type because they represent a design of ship in which everything has been devoted to passenger-carrying. Apart from accommodation for officers and crew and for fresh water and (on the homeward run) for fresh vegetables, the whole hull is taken up by magnificent saloons, extensive bars, lounges and luxury suites.
The Monarch of Bermuda and the Queen of Bermuda were both built by Vickers-Armstrong, the latter at Barrow-in-Furness (Lancashire), and the former at Walker-on-Tyne (Newcastle). The electric motors are by the General Electric Company, Witton, Birmingham, and the boilers are by Babcock & Wilcox. These vessels are among the largest electric ships in the world, having four screws and a speed of 20 knots. The Monarch of Bermuda has a gross tonnage of 22,424; her dimensions are 576 feet by 76.5 feet by 43.25 feet, the draught being 24 ft 3 in. There are two main and four auxiliary turbo-generators, steam being taken from eight water-tube boilers pressed at 400 lb per sq in at 650° superheat.
An unusual arrangement of machinery has been adopted so that the main passenger decks may be fitted in. The boilers are divided into two groups of four, and in the middle is the main turbo-generator room. This supplies current to four propelling motors which are arranged far aft. In the first ship, the Monarch of Bermuda, which was completed in November, 1931, the motors are arranged round the lower swimming-bath.
MAUDSLAY’S OSCILLATING ENGINE, patented in 1827, consisted of two cylinders swinging on trunnions. Steam was supplied to the cylinders through the outer trunnions, which were connected to the valve chests by passages cast in the cylinder walls. The inner trunnions were connected direct to the central condenser, which was fitted with an air pump worked by an intermediate crank. The slide valves of either cylinder were worked by an eccentric fitted with a catch for hand operation when reversing. Maudslay fitted engines of this type to the steamer Endeavour that plied on the Thames between London and Richmond from 1829 to 1840.
EXERCISING THE DOGS. The photograph shows George Marston leading the dogs down on to the ice floe from the Endurance. Shackleton is standing on the platform overlooking the gangway. Six teams had been formed, each having nine dogs, and considerable time and pains had been spent on their training. Each team had its leader dog whose duty was to maintain discipline in the team by punishing disobedience or shirking. Crean, Hurley, Macklin, Marston, McIlroy and Wild were in charge of the respective teams, and each man was responsible for exercising, training and feeding his own dogs.
A Gallery of Native Craft
Remarkable yet primitive vessels are still built in remote places of the world, often without adequate material, but always with a skill that has been inherited through many generations. In this chapter, Sidney Howard describes the primitive boats of Egypt, China and the Pacific Islands. Many features now incorporated in modern ships owe their origin to small craft of this type. The article includes a four-page photogravure supplement, shown below.
THE EAST AND THE WEST (left) provides a picturesque contrast on the River Hooghly at Calcutta. The steamer in the background and the steam launch on the left are Western products, but the river craft in the foreground is of a type that has been unchanged for centuries. One type of native passenger boat used on the Hooghly is known as a dinghy, a term applied also to small boats towed or carried by yachts.
A Gallery of Native Craft:
The article includes a four-page photogravure supplement as follows.
A FLEET OF NILE BOATS at Sahil Atar el Nahi, Old Cairo, a quay on the Nile. The curious high stems of these boats resemble the boats of the ancient Egyptians, but the lateen sails are derived from the Arabs. The exceptionally long yard of the lateen rig enables the Nile boat to catch the wind when sailing close to the high banks of the river.
A Gallery of Native Craft - 2
ON A CHINESE RIVER. A large amount of traffic is carried in China by water. The junk illustrated is typical of the craft on the Pei Ho River. The sea-going junk, which uses similar sails, is one of the most seaworthy sailing vessels in the world.
A Gallery of Native Craft - 4
BALSA BOATS ON LAKE TITICACA, in South America. These small boats are made of logs from the balsa tree, connected by wickerwork. The buoyancy of balsa wood is about twice that of cork, and the wood is said to be the lightest in existence. The shape of the balsas has not changed since the days of the Incas.
CRAB-CLAW MATTING SAILS on lakatoids at Huanabada, Central Papua. Lakatoids are built of two canoes, fastened together by struts, the space between being decked over. To make the “crab-claw” sail, strips of matting are plaited together, and the sail-cloths are then sewn. Three stakes form the framework on which the sail is made. The upper stake, forming the bend of the “claw”, is bent into the curve. To set the sail, it is first hoisted horizontally, and the foot is brought down and made fast to the foot of the mast.
Samsons of the Sea
The Belships have been specially designed and constructed for taking on board any cargo that is too heavy or too bulky for the ordinary cargo ship to manage. Some of the most remarkable cargoes ever carried in hips are handled by the firm of Belships Limited. The carrying of heavy and awkward cargoes, such as locomotives, lightships, pipelines or barges, is the special work of this company, which processes a fleet of striking ships designed for the purpose. A C Hardy contributes a fascinating chapter on this subject, which is the first in the series on Romance of the Trade Routes.
LOADING LOCOMOTIVES. Before the Belships were designed by captain Christen Smith, locomotives had to be completely dismantled before it was possible to load them in cargo ships for export. This picture shows the motor ship Belpareil(7,203 tons gross) lifting a complete locomotive on board with her own derricks.
Training in Sail To-day
Those who desire it can still be trained for the sea in sailing ships, and there are a number of special ships in which voyages of instruction can be made. For certain appointments, both British and foreign, such experience in a sailing ship is compulsory. This chapter is by Frank Bowen and deals with the sailing ships now afloat that afford such training, and describes the methods employed. The value of training in sail is the subject of much discussion at the present time. Whatever views may be held on the subject these details of vessels of sailing under different flags are of absorbing interest.
THE SWEDISH TRADING SHIP C. B. PEDERSEN was formerly the Italian Emanuele Accame. She was built in 1891, and after an adventurous career now takes part in the annual movement of South Australian grain. Her gross tonnage is 2,142. She is one of the few sailing ships to pass at times through the Panama Canal, since her voyages to and from Australia are sometimes varied to give the cadets whom she carries the widest possible experience.
When the Suevic was wrecked off the Cornish coast her bow was so badly damaged that it was at first believed that the ship would have to be abandoned to the sea. Enterprising salvage engineers however carried out a daring piece of ship surgery, which Frank Bowen describes in this chapter. After being fitted with a new bow, she has since survived for many years as passenger liner, troopship and whaling mother-ship in the Antarctic. The article is concluded in part 15.
THE SUEVIC ON THE ROCKS. The upper photograph shows the liner on the rocks near the Lizard, Cornwall, where she struck on March 17 1907. Her bow as firmly held by the rocks, and in a few days the lower parts of it were reduced to a tangle of steelwork. It was decided to cut the ship in two, abandon the bow and salvage the remaining 400 feet of the vessel. This after section was perfectly sound and later was fitted with a new bow. The lower picture shows the damaged bow shortly before it was broken up by the sea.