This week’s cover shows the Captain of the SS Eston, a P & O coastal cargo boat, on board ship. The Eston is a freight service boat on the home trade, and has a gross tonnage of 1,487, a length of 240 ft 2 in, a beam of 36 ft 1 in, and a depth of 19 ft 1 in.
A FULL-SIZE REPLICA of the Santa Maria was built by the Spanish Government in 1892 for the fourth century of the discovery of America. This model was as exact a reproduction of the original Santa Maria as it is possible to design from the information available. Under her won sail this vessel successfully made the voyage across the Atlantic Ocean on the same course that Columbus had taken four hundred years before.
A Modern Motor Yacht
This little vessel, the Aronia, typical of many modern yachts and thus not a merchant ship, is included in this series for convenience. She is propelled by diesel engines and her hull is of a form known as the “toothpick” type. She was built and engined in Denmark and the drawings show that she has a hull form somewhat similar to that of a torpedo-boat destroyer. This is particularly marked in the cruiser stern, the arrangement of propellers and the spade rudder. She has twin screws. Her length is 135 feet, her beam 17 ft 6 in and her depth 11 feet. Her minimum draught in service is 7 ft 6 in and her speed with the twin screws is 15½ knots.
A “superstructure” in the shape of a casing just over 3 feet in height runs aft from the forecastle and ends in a big saloon on the after deck. The two funnels, one an exhaust and the other a dummy, are on this casing top. The dummy funnel is fitted at the break of the forecastle and the after funnel takes the exhaust from the diesel engines. The structure of the hull is of the usual frame and reverse frame style associated with ships of this type, but fuel-oil double-bottom tanks, with a total capacity of about 12 tons, are arranged immediately forward of the engine-room and between the auxiliary engine seatings.
Propulsion is carried out by two six-cylinder, two-cycle, single-acting airless injection engines. These are trunk piston units and rated for 590 indicated horse-power, or about 450 brake horse-power at 400 revolutions a minute. The total power output of the ship is thus 1,180 indicated horse-power.
Each main engine is fitted with a rotary cooling water pump driven from the end of the crankshaft which, in addition, drives a lubricating oil pump of the gear-wheel type as well as a rotary bilge pump. Scavenge air is supplied by two rotary blowers, of the Burmeister & Wain patented type, driven from the main engines through chain drives. Eleven tons of fresh water are carried in two tanks in the engine-room, in the double bottom tank abaft the engine-room and in the aft peak tank.
Since its formation in 1903, in place of the older Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers, the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve has grown in importance as well as in numbers. A volunteer organization, with divisions in many parts of Great Britain, the RNVR offers to the sea-loving man who lives ashore the opportunity to train for naval service. The RNVR, the “Wavy Navy”, as it was affectionately called during the war of 1914-18, supplies young men with the opportunity of seriously serving the sea in their spare time. The RNVR has no counterpart in any other maritime country. A proportion of its officers and ratings are yachtsmen, but the majority have no opportunities of yachting. The work done by the RNVR in the war was of the most useful and valuable kind and many RN Volunteers distinguished themselves. One was selected to be Chief Yeoman of Signals in the Fleet Flagship. Signalling is rightly regarded as a highly specialized job and it was a a wonderful tribute to the efficiency and training in the RNVR that a man who was, after all, an amateur, should have been given this post. After the war the RNVR was reorganized and many divisions and sub-divisions were formed in different pars of the country. This chapter is by Frank C Bowen and is the third article in the series Going to Sea.
MOORED OFF THE THAMES EMBANKMENT above Blackfriars Bridge, HMS President is the London training ship of the RNVR. She was built in 1918 as HM Sloop Saxifrage, with a length of 262 feet, a beam of 35 feet, and a displacement of 1,290 tons. All Officers employed in the Admiralty are nominally appointed to HMS President.
“The Stormy Seas of the Atlantic Ocean”
THE STORMY SEAS of the Atlantic Ocean do not present such dangers to the modern liner as they did to the earlier sailing vessels. This photograph was taken from the aft deck of the tourist class quarters in the Norddeutscher Lloyd liner Bremen, 51,656 tons gross. This deck is 36 feet above the water-line. The velocity of the wind which raises such seas is between 34 and 40 knots, and would be described as a fresh gale, Number 8 in the Beaufort wind scale. A hurricane, the strongest wind that ever blows, is Number 12 in this scale, which is invariably used by navigators to denote the strength of the prevailing wind. Number 0 in the scale, on the other hand, indicates a wind velocity of under one knot.
Clarence Winchester noted in the editorial to this issue “Of all the covers that have so far appeared in Shipping Wonders of the World, those that have aroused the most interest have been the cover of Part 3 and the cover of Part 6. In accordance with my custom of
The German Auxiliary Magdalene Vinnen
A MODERN FOUR-MASTED BARQUE, the German auxiliary Magdelene Vinnen, 3,476 tons gross, sailed from Port Jackson, Australia, round cape Horn to Falmouth, Cornwall, with a cargo of 16,000 bales of wool. This is claimed to be a record shipment for sailing vessels. The Magdalene Vinnen, built at Kiel by Krupp in 1921, has a length of 329 feet, a beam of 48 ft 2 in, and a depth of 26 ft 8 in.
Ships in Postage Stamps
A complete pictorial history of the development of ships from the earliest times to the present day can be traced from the designs of postage stamps issued by many countries. Nearly all maritime nations of the world have issued at one time or another postage stamps that picture some form of ship or boat. Some are crude and inaccurately drawn, others are nautically and artistically correct. The United States heads the list of nations with the greatest number of stamp designs, incorporating pictures of ships from a Norse galley to a modern mail liner. Portugal has probably issued the next greatest number of ship stamps. This chapter, by Boyd Cable, is full of shipping interest. Although some of the stamps reproduced are familiar, many are comparatively rare and, indeed, he was able to obtain the illustrations only through the courtesy of Stanley Gibbons & Co, the well-known philatelists. As the chapter is intended for a public not chiefly concerned with postage stamps, no attempt has been made to keep the illustrations to correct relative sizes.
The Almirante Saldanha
(Left) The Almirante Saldanha, a four-masted barquentine used by the Brazilian Navy as a training ship. She was built in 1933 and equipped with a 1,400 horse-power six-cylinder diesel engine by Vickers-Armstrong. The overall length of the Almirante Saldanha is 305 feet and she has a displacement of 3,325 tons. Under diesel power alone she makes 11 knots and her fuel capacity is sufficient for a voyage of 12,000 miles.
Click on the small image to see a British Pathe newsreel clip “Brazilian Barque at Golden Gate” (1949)
The Salved Submarine K 13
THE SALVED SUBMARINE K 13 lying between two of the lifting vessels before being taken into dock. Only a few hours after the men trapped in her had been rescued she tore away her cables and sank once more to the bottom. The salvage men worked on her for six weeks before she came to the surface again.
United States Postage Stamps
UNITED STATES POSTAGE STAMPS illustrate more types of ships than the stamps of any other nation. The voyage of Columbus, of Hudson and of the Vikings, the opening of the Panama Canal and many other famous incidents of sea history can be illustrated by a collection of these stamps.
The Unlucky K13
On January 29, 1917, the trials of K 13, a new submarine, were carried out in the Gareloch, on the Firth of Clyde. Without warning, the great submarine sank, but heroic measures saved the lives of over half the number of those on board. This chapter is by David Masters and is the seventh article in the series Dramas of Salvage. You can read more about this salvage in chapter X of David Masters’ book The Wonders of Salvage. The article concludes in part 22.
The Eastern Steamship liner Acadia
(Left) ON THE COASTWISE RUN between New York and Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, in the summer and between Boston and Yarmouth in the winter, the Eastern Steamship liner Acadia maintains a speed of 18 knots. She was built in 1932 and has a gross tonnage of 6,185. Her length is 387 ft 5 in, her beam 61 ft 3 in and her depth 27 feet.
A Streamlined Passenger Ferry
A STREAMLINED PASSENGER FERRY runs across Puget Sound in the State of Washington, USA. The first completely streamlined ship in the world, the Kalakala, was converted in 1935 from a ferry boat of more orthodox design. Her enclosed decks offer the greatest comfort to the passengers. The Kalakala is 276 feet in length, with a beam of 55 ft 8 in and a draught
of 13 feet.
Auxiliary Sailing Vessels
When steam propulsion came into general use many sailing vessels were equipped with auxiliary engines. For many years, when steamships were still in an early stage of development, they carried sails and were really auxiliary steamships. It was a long time before shipmasters and owners began to think solely in terms of steam. This attitude was due not to conservatism, but to the huge consumption of coal in steamships and also to the high standard of efficiency maintained by the sailing vessel. It was not until the triple-expansion engine had been introduced that the steamship's ascendancy was firmly established. No modern steamships are equipped with sails to-day. The modern diesel engine is now often fitted to small sailing craft and has thus helped to prevent the disappearance of sail from the seas. This article is by Sidney Howard.
reproducing outstanding covers as colour plates in later parts, I have already published the colour plate of the Lightning in Part 10. This week our colour plate is the picture of a big sea, taken from the deck of the Bremen - a particularly fine photographic impression of the stormy North Atlantic.” This illustration was previously used as the cover for part 6. The Bremen also features on the covers of part 11 and part 20.
(Between pages 652-653)
The policy of Government subsidies for American shipping has been dictated by economic circumstances which have existed since the United States were first established. The work of the United States Shipping Board has made the American Merchant Service the second largest in the world. In sailing-ship days, the Americans were noted for their beautiful and speedy clipper ships. Later on, American shipping suffered from many adverse influences. After the war of 1914-18, however, the Americans foresaw a boom in shipping and, with typical business acumen, prepared to make the most of it. The Untied States Shipping Board was created in 1916 to foster merchant shipping and in more recent years large subsidies have been paid by the US Government to shipowners and builders. This chapter tells of the economic conditions that lie behind American shipping and describes the vessels on the various services. It deals also with distinctive American types. This chapter is by Frank Bowen and is the second article in the series Sea Transport of the Nations.