This week’s cover is a study taken from the deck of the Bremen on one of her voyages to New York. This peaceful scene forms a striking contrast to the stormy picture, also taken from the Bremen, published on the cover of part 6. The Bremen, built in 1929, has a gross tonnage of 51,656.
OUTWARD-BOUND VESSELS from Vancouver Harbour pass through the channel known as the Lions’ Gate. In the upper photograph the motor vessel Glenmoor is seen leaving the Lions’ Gate on a breezy day with a cargo of grain. The Glenmoor has a gross tonnage of 4,393 and is owned by the Moor Line Ltd. Her length is 375 feet, her beam 52 ft 7 in and her depth
25 ft 8 in.
The lower photograph shows the Canadian Australasian liner Aorangi passing Brockton Point Lighthouse at the beginning of her voyage to Australia. This lighthouse is situated at the eastern entrance to Lions’ Gate. Its fixed red and white lights are visible for a distance of five miles across the harbour. The lighthouse is equipped also with a fog bell which sounds every five seconds when necessary.
Guarding the Seas
The cruisers of the Royal Navy patrol the trade routes of the British Empire, and guarantee the protection of merchant vessels in every ocean. The modern cruiser is the lineal descent of the old-time frigate and performs exactly the same functions in peace and war as its predecessor of Nelson’s day. Cruisers in the modern British Fleet range from 10,000 tons to 4,200 tons displacement, with armaments varying from eight 8-in 256 pounders to five 6-in 100 pounders. This chapter is by Hector C Bywater and is the sixth article in the series The Navy Goes to Work.
Coastwise Vessels of the Union Steamship Company
COASTWISE VESSELS of the Union Steamship Company at their piers on the south shore of Burrard Inlet, Vancouver harbour. These ships penetrate every mountain-girt fjord for a distance of 400 miles along the coast of British Columbia. The fleet has developed from the original coastal vessels which plied on the shores of the Strait of Georgia. The Catala, the foremost ship on the left of the photograph, is typical of the modern fleet. She is a vessel of 1,476 tons gross and is driven by twin screws. Her length is 218 feet, her beam 37 feet, and her depth is 18 ft 5 in.
First planned by James Watt in 1773 and opened to shipping in 1822, the Caledonian Canal is chiefly used to-day by fishing vessels and tourist steamers. The canal is sixty miles long and extends from the Moray Firth on the east coast of Scotland to Loch Linnhe on the east coast. This chapter is written by C Hamilton Ellis and is the seventh article in the series on World Waterways.
(Left) DRYING THE SAILS of the Ahto I alongside a jetty after a wet passage. The sails, on which so much depends, must be stored dry to prevent the formation of mildew. In comparison with the length of the yacht and her low freeboard, the mast is exceptionally high. Ahto Walter prefers to carry extra sail to give the vessel a faster speed when more orthodox yachtsmen would reef.
Ahto’s and Olsen’s memoirs of their voyages were published in 1935 under the title Racing The Seas.
A Southern Route Transatlantic Liner
Italy’s contribution to the world’s mercantile marine in the last few years has been characterized by the production of a number of fast passenger liners with luxury accommodation. Two of the most important of these, the Rex and the Conte Di Savoia, were designed to capture transatlantic speed records. The Rex was built by the Ansaldo works at Sestri Ponente, in the Gulf of Genoa, and the Conte Di Savoia by the United Adriatic shipyards at Trieste, at the head of the Adriatic.
The drawing below shows the Rex, one of the most popular ships on the “sunshine route” between New York and Mediterranean ports. Her gross tonnage is 51,062, and deadweight tonnage 12,200. Her length overall is 880 feet, her beam 97 feet, and her depth 31 feet. Her draught is 32 ft. 5 in. Completed in 1932, the Rex held the Blue Riband of the Atlantic, with a speed of 28.92 knots, until 1935. As the drawing indicates, the Rex has two funnels, 51 feet in height, a raking bow and a counter stern. She is a quadruple screw ship with triple-expansion geared turbines on each screw, developing a total of 120,000 shaft horse-power. The fuel capacity is 9,700 tons.
Passenger and other decks below the main deck are lettered from A to H; above these is an arrangement of luxurious first-class and second-class decks, with special state rooms and verandas, and sports decks. Accommodation is provided for 443 first class, 362 second class, 402 tourist class, and 820 third class passengers. In common with many other large modern passenger liners, the space devoted to cargo is relatively small.
Formerly an association of underwriters and brokers who met in a London coffee-house, Lloyd’s is now a corporation dealing with insurance in all its branches, and particularly with marine insurance. Before 1871 Lloyd’s was merely an association of underwriters and brokers, but in that year it was incorporated by an Act of Parliament, and statutory duties were subsequently laid upon it. In 1734 Lloyd’s List appeared, and in 1836 the rival Shipping Gazette. The two papers, after long association, were amalgamated in 1916, as Lloyd’s List and Shipping Gazette. Lloyd’s Register of Shipping is the leading society for the classification of ships. This chapter is by F A Bex.
In the face of almost universal opposition Christopher Columbus and his small expedition set out across the unknown waters of the Atlantic Ocean in search of a new route to the continent of Asia. Columbus was the only early navigator or explorer who altered the whole course of history by the achievements of a single voyage. Columbus discovered the New World, the great American continent, and gave new life to the Old World. This chapter is by Sidney Howard and is the third article in the series Supreme Feats of Navigation. The article is concluded in part 21.
The Ocean Docks of the Canadian Pacific at Vancouver
THE OCEAN DOCKS of the Canadian Pacific at Vancouver. In the foreground is the Canadian Australasian liner Aorangi, 17,491 tons gross. This magnificent quadruple-screw liner was built at Glasgow in 1924 and is registered in London. She has a length of 580 feet, a beam of 72 ft 2 in and a depth of 43 ft 5 in. Pier B-C is reserved by the Canadian Pacific for the use of its liners on the service to the Far East. The Empress of Asia, the Empress of Canada, the Empress of Japan and the Empress of Russia are regularly employed on this service. The pier was opened on July 4, 1927, and cost approximately five million dollars, or over £1,000,000.
The Romance of Vancouver
The great land-locked harbour of Vancouver forms Canada’s gateway to the Pacific Ocean. In the lifetime of one man Vancouver has grown from an insignificant log-camp into a modern commercial centre. Vancouver is the commercial metropolis of the Province of British Columbia and the third largest city in the Dominion of Canada. This chapter is by Sidney Howard and is the sixth article in the series Great Ports of the World.
Guarding the Seas - 2
COMBINED NAVAL EXERCISES. The picture shows HMS Coventry leading destroyers during manoeuvres. Completed in 1918, HMS Coventry is a cruiser of 4,290 tons. Her engines have a designed horsepower of 40,0000, and give her a speed of 29 knots.
The Land-Locked Harbour of Vancouver
THE LAND-LOCKED HARBOUR of Vancouver is set in surroundings of magnificent natural beauty, as befits the great Pacific port of the Dominion of Canada. Across the waters of Burrard Inlet snow-capped mountain peaks dominate the industrial scene. Three passenger and freight ferries link the two shores of the port in this central section of Vancouver Harbour. Only fifty years before this photograph was taken these shores were almost uninhabited.
An Inverness Drifter
AN INVERNESS DRIFTER, the Invernairne, passing through the locks at Inverness. The vessel, which belongs to the Moray Firth Fishing Fleet, is on the first stage of her sixty miles’ journey through the canal. She is bound for the fishing grounds off the west coast of Scotland where she will make Oban her base and harbour.
The Famous Lutine Bell
SUSPENDED IN THE ROSTRUM, in the Underwriting Room, is the famous Lutine bell. The Lutine was a captured French 32-guns frigate incorporated in the Royal Navy. On October 7, 1799, having left Great Yarmouth with a cargo of specie valued at £1,175,000, she was wrecked off the island of Vlieland, In Holland. Among the objects salved was the ship’s bell. The Lutine bell plays a significant part in the daily life of Lloyd’s. One stroke calls for silence for any announcement from the Committee. Two strokes indicate that news has been received of an overdue ship.
The “Casualty Book”
IN THE “CASUALTY BOOK” and on the “Casualty Boards - both in the Underwriting Room at Lloyd’s - is to be found the latest news of wrecks and marine disasters. When there is a total loss the owner gives “Notice of Abandonment” to the underwriters and then claims for payment in full of the amount insured. The “Casualty Book” and the “Arrival Book” are placed on either side of the Rostrum.
The Santa Maria
THE CARAVEL in which Columbus first sailed across the Atlantic was called the Santa Maria. This illustration shows the general design of the caravel. She was a vessel of 100 tons burden, the largest in the expedition. Her foremast and mainmast were square-rigged, and her mizenmast was lateen-rigged. Her crew numbered fifty-two.