The cover of the present issue is a somewhat remarkable view of the Berengaria leaving her dock at Southampton in January this year. The picture was taken from under the stern of the Aquitania as she arrived from New York.
THE INCESSANT TRAFFIC OF THE HUDSON RIVER passes between New York State and the State of New Jersey. This photograph shows the view from the Manhattan docks across to Hoboken. New York City has one of the best natural harbours in the world. The total water-frontage of the port is about 770 miles. Of this length some 350 miles have been developed. The port area covers a radius of about 20 miles from Manhattan Island.
The Dangers of the Ice Pack
The dangers of the ice pack were constantly harrying the Chelyuskin expedition during its long sojourn on the drifting ice of the Arctic Ocean. Fissures would suddenly appear without warning, and this photograph shows how on one occasion a fissure cut completely through one of the huts in the camp.
Elaborate precautions have to be taken to preserve in good condition chilled or frozen meat and provisions carried over long distances. Specially built ships of interesting design are used on these routes. During the last fifty years the refrigerated ship has changed conditions of life for millions of people, especially those who live in crowded industrial countries such as the British Isles, in primarily agricultural and farming countries overseas such as Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the Argentine, and in many tropical counties. Thanks to the steam and motor ship, to the research scientist and the engineer, our transport of perishable foodstuffs, particularly meat and fruit, has made immense strides in recent years. This chapter is by Sidney Howard and is the second in the series the Romance of the Trade Routes.
APPROACHING HER BERTH. A striking photograph of the Cunard White Star liner Berengaria (ex-Imperator, 52,101 tons), assisted by tugs, coming into the Cunard pier. The greatest liner piers are on the west side of Manhattan Island, facing the Hudson River. The length of the Hudson River piers has recently been increased from 900 feet to 1,100 feet, to accommodate such vessels as the Queen Mary and the Normandie.
The North Sea Passenger Mail and Cargo Packet
ON the often stormy route across the North Sea between Esbjerg, the Danish port on the west coast of Jutland, and Harwich, in Essex, a daily service is maintained by the United Steamship Company of Copenhagen. The passage in either direction occupies twenty-three to twenty-four hours, with fast train connexions at either end, Esbjerg being linked by rail with Copenhagen and Harwich with London. The vessels may aptly be described as “all-purpose” ships, for they carry not only passengers, but also refrigerated produce, general cargo and mails. To maintain a daily service in either direction, except Sundays, there are four vessels. They are diesel-driven and are of what is known as awning deck type.
As will be seen from the plans, there is ample and comfortable passenger accommodation. This is arranged amidships in a two-decks structure on the awning deck, with further cabins in the ’tween decks for first-class passengers and accommodation for third-class passengers towards the after end. The promenade deck contains the lounge, smoking-room and a comfortable music-room. The first-class dining saloon is in the upper ’tween decks just forward of amidships. The crew is accommodated in the forecastle. There are two masts, round which are grouped 2-tons, 3-tons and 6-tons derricks. The profile is completed by a graceful raking funnel, two pole masts, a straight stem and a counter stern.
The England is the newest ship of the fleet and was completed in April 1932. She has accommodation for 108 first-class and 82 third-class passengers. Her four cargo holds carry 94,500 cubic feet of cargo, of which 51,260 cubic feet are refrigerated. She has a deadweight tonnage of 1,750 and gross tonnage of 2,767, the dimensions being 306 ft 3 in by 44 ft 2 in by 25 ft 11 in. For her size she is fast, being able to run at about 15½ knots in loaded condition when drawing 18 ft 2 in of water and using 13 tons of oil every 24 hours. Propulsion is by two Burmeister & Wain four-cycle single-acting engines, each having six cylinders 21.68 in diameter and 35.43 in stroke, 3,140 bhp being developed at 195 revolutions of the screw. Electricity is used throughout for auxiliary purposes.
CUNARD WHITE STAR PIERS on Manhattan Island, facing the Hudson River. Even the largest vessels can sail up this river to the heart of the city. Of the ships seen in the photograph the largest - with four funnels - is the Aquitania. This quadruple-screw turbine liner, of 45,647 tons gross, was built at Clydebank in 1914. She has a length of 868 ft 8 in, a beam of 97 feet, and a depth of 49 ft 8 in.
LOOKING ACROSS THE EAST RIVER from Brooklyn to Manhattan Island. Either side of the river is bordered with docks. On the New York side are docks of the Ward Line (New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Co) and of the Porto Rico Line. Behind these docks rises New York’s imposing array of skyscrapers. The whole of the south end of Manhattan Island, facing East River and Hudson River, is lined with piers and landing places, which are thus easily accessible from the heart of New York City.
Twenty-Nine Cargo Spaces on the Imperial Star
TWENTY-NINE CARGO SPACES, insulated by granulated cork, are installed in the Imperial Star, a Blue Star liner equipped with refrigerated machinery for the carriage of meat. The spaces have a total capacity of 528,419 cubic feet. The Imperial Star, a vessel of 10,670 tons gross, was built in Belfast in 1935. She has a length of 516¾ feet, a breadth of 70 feet and a depth of 32 feet.
New York - Key to a Continent
All the world’s fastest steamship services from Europe to the United States converge on the Port of New York, with its magnificent natural harbour on the Atlantic seaboard of the North American continent. This chapter is by Sidney Howard.
The activities of Trinity House - an organization that probably began with the earliest years of British shipping - include the maintenance of navigation arks and lights round the British coast-lines and the provision of an efficient pilotage service. The Corporation of Trinity House has a position different from that of any other organization in the world. This chapter was written by Frank Bowen.
The Elegant Lines of the Irene
THE ELEGANT LINES of the former Trinity House yacht Irene, the predecessor of the present yacht Patricia, are shown to the best advantage in this photograph taken at the Yarmouth Depot in Norfolk. The Irene, 543 tons gross, was built in 1890, and was blown up by a mine during the war of 1914-18.
From An Unusual Angle
FROM AN UNUSUAL ANGLE. Painters at work on the lantern of the Outer Gabbard Lightship, during her overhaul at the Surrey Commercial Docks, London. The vessel is normally moored about twelve miles off Harwich. Her light gives four white flashes every fifteen seconds, visible eleven miles.
Raising a Submarine Minelayer
An exciting chapter was added to the history of salvage when, in 1917, Commander Davis raised from the sea bed and beached on the Irish Coast a submarine that was loaded with live mines. In 1917, when enemy submarines were taking such a toll of British shipping, the least bit of information concerning the movements of U-boats was of vital importance to the Admiralty. To gain this information some wonderful savage work was performed. Commander G Davis, whose story is told here by David Masters, safely raised and beached the UC 44. This is the sixth article in the series on Dramas of Salvage. The article is concluded in part 19.
The Mine-Laden Wreck of the UC 44
THE MINE-LADEN WRECK of the German submarine UC 44 was brought ashore slung between the two lifting vessels shown in this photograph. During minelaying operations, this submarine was herself struck by a mine. Commander Davis, who was in charge of the dangerous feat of raising this wreck and bringing her ashore, is the nearest figure in the foreground of the lifting vessel on the right.