Part 45 of Shipping Wonders of the World was published on Tuesday 15th December 1936.
This issue included a colour plate illustrating the Joseph Conrad. It previously appeared as the cover to part 14. The plate was attached to page 1421 of this part.
Our cover this week is from an original specially painted for Shipping Wonders of the World by
K M Sibley. It shows the homeward-bound Lochmonar at Gravesend, Kent. The Lochmonar was built in 1924 at Belfast by Harland and Wolff. Her gross tonnage is 9,412, her length is 485 ft 7 in, her breadth 62 ft 2 in and her depth 35 ft 6 in. She belongs to the Royal Mail Lines.
AT THE END OF THE WORLD VOYAGE, spectators welcoming Robinson on his arrival at New York in November 1931. From Tenerife, Canary Islands, the run of 4,000 miles to Morehead City (North Carolina) was made in thirty-eight days. On the last lap the Svaap had to weather a wintry gale from the north, driving an icy, incessant rain. From Morehead City Robinson took the Svaap through inland waterways to New York City. The total distance sailed was 32,000 miles.
Vanishing Coastal Craft
Round the shores of Great Britain there re no fewer than 200 distinct types of coastal craft which are rapidly disappearing before the advent of the modern motor vessel. Whereas a few years ago British coastal waters were alive with the sails of the little fishing boats and coasters, to-day, save for the white canvas of the yachtsman in summer time, it is becoming a rare thing to see a sail. Now that the old types, which have behind them a thousand years and more of seafaring history, are disappearing so rapidly, they are inspiring an interest far greater than they ever did in the days of their prosperity. This chapter is by F G G Carr.
Old methods of whaling have been largely superseded by the introduction of mother ships or floating factories for dealing with the carcasses of whales after they have been caught by the small whale catchers. The floating factories can work independently of any land base. Modern whaling is a business run on commercial lines, and scientific research is now directed to obtaining information about the habits of whales. The pelagic whaler nowadays depends on the mother ship, which acts not only as a self-contained base for the small whale-catchers, but also as a floating factory. In former days the carcasses of the whales were flensed - cut up - alongside in conditions often of great hazard. To-day, the carcasses are hauled up through trunk-ways in the stern - or sometimes in the bows - and dealt with on board. Although there is much less demand than formerly for whalebone, other by-products find a ready market. Whale oil, used for making soap, explosives and margarine, is also a valuable lubricant. Whale meat is used extensively for human consumption. Spermaceti is the base of many pharmaceutical preparations. The most valuable by-product is ambergris, used in the perfumery industry. In modern pelagic whaling nothing is wasted. With the earlier chapter entitled There She Blows! (in part 5) this forms a complete survey of whaling in bygone days and at the present time. This further chapter, by Frank Bowen, gives a comprehensive account of modern whaling, and readers of The Cruise of the Cachalot and Moby Dick will find it interesting to compare past and present.
The French Navy
Before the war of 1914-18 the French Navy was weakened by a divergence of opinion on policy, but since 1919 great changes have taken place and a well-balanced, powerful fleet has been evolved. The Washington Conference, intended to limit naval power, had exactly the opposite effect so far as one country was concerned. France’s weakness at seas was exposed and she immediately set about rebuilding her fleet up to the limits imposed by the Washington Treaty. She was fortunate in having a Minister of Marine of exceptional ability at that time, M. Georges Leygues, and the programme of reconstruction was planned and carried out with characteristic thoroughness. To-day France has a remarkably complete and well-organized Navy, and her submarine fleet is great than that of any other Power. The submarine cruiser Surcouf (which cannot, however, be considered typical) is 361 feet long and has a surface displacement tonnage of 2,880. Her crew numbers 150. This chapter is by Hector Bywater and is the second article in the series on the Fleets of the Foreign Powers.
It is the duty of the Fishery Protection Service to see that British and foreign fishing vessels abide by the regulations and restrictions governing the fishing grounds. After an offence against territorial laws, however, fishermen will often run considerable risks to avoid arrest. The author is Walter Wood, who contributed an earlier chapter on the work of the Fishing Fleet in part 40 The Fishery Protection Service is organized by the Navy in co-operation with the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, in England and Wales, but Scotland and Ireland have their own organizations. In November 1919 the Fisheries Department of the Board was put under the direct control of the Parliamentary Secretary. This chapter, however, deals not so much with the organization or “business” side as with the vastly more interesting human aspect.
ONE OF SEVEN 10,000-TONS CRUISERS completed between 1928 and 1934 for the French Navy. The Duquense and her sister, the Tourville, developed on trial a speed of nearly 36 knots. They have an overall length of 626 ft 4 in and a maximum draught of 23 feet. Their armament includes eight 8-in guns, sixteen anti-aircraft guns and six torpedo tubes.
Cargo Line in Indian-American Trade
Below is a good example of an up-to-date steam-driven cargo liner. She is the Marwarri, completed in 1935 at Port Glasgow for the Indian-American trade of T. and J. Brocklebank, Ltd. She has a length of 470 feet, a beam of 62 ft 9 in, a depth to the upper deck of 34 ft 10 in, and a deadweight carrying capacity of 10,250 tons. In service she has a speed of about 13½ knots, given by a single set of turbines driving the screw through single reduction gearing. The turbines themselves turn at about 2,500 revolutions a minute and develop 5,200 shaft horse-
power. Steam is generated in four single-ended boilers 17 feet in diameter and 12 ft 6 in long, each having four furnaces operating under forced draught. The Marwarri is registered at Liverpool. The ship is of the three-island type, having two complete decks and a third deck in the fore hold. She has a raked stem and a stern of the cruiser type. The poop is fitted out to provide accommodation for the crew and the long bridge structure has a large centre deckhouse containing the saloon, state rooms and other compartments. The officers deckhouse is above the saloon and the captain's rooms are situated over the officers' deckhouse. Over the captain’s rooms are the flying bridge and the wireless room, charthouse
and pilot house. Engineers and petty officers are accommodated in houses alongside the machinery casing, at the after end of which is a smoking-room. A double bottom extends for the-full length of the ship and is arranged for carrying water ballast. water ballast can also be carried in one section of the after hold and in the fore-and-aft peak tanks. There are six cargo
hatches, the weather deck hatches being fitted with Reith hatch beam side supports and stiffeners. For cargo-handling purposes fourteen steam winches have been installed and there are altogether seventeen derricks mounted either on the masts or on derrick posts. The forward end of the bridge space is fitted for the carriage of refrigerated cargo in roomy insulated chambers. This the thirty-fifth article in the series on Merchant Ship Types.
The Mount’s Bay Lugger
THE MOUNT’S BAY LUGGER, with her characteristic pointed stern, no longer depends on her sails, for all surviving luggers of this type are fitted with engines. Above are shown a lugger at the end of the nineteenth century (right) and an old West-Country trading smack of a type that has disappeared. The Mount’s Bay luggers are exceptional sea-boats are exceptional sea-boats and one was sailed to Australia in the last century.
The Isle of Thanet at Folkestone
ONE OF THE BEST KNOWN PACKET PORTS is Folkestone, Kent. From here two daily services are in operation across the Strait of Dover to Boulogne, France. The Isle of Thanet, above, is a Southern Railway steamer of 2,701 tons gross. Built in 1925, she has a length of 329 ft 6 in, a beam of 45 ft 1 in and a depth of 17 ft 1 in. Four steam turbines drive her twin screws through single-reduction gearing.
The Boyne, a Fishery Protection Gunboat
THE BLACK-TOPPED FUNNEL distinguishes the Fishery Protection gunboat from similar type vessels which are rated as ordinary trawlers in the Royal Navy. The Boyne, above, was built in 1917-18 and has a displacement of 665 tons with a gross tonnage of 324. She has a speed of 11 knots and is armed with one 3-in gun. Her length is 138 ft 4 in, her beam 23 ft 9 in
and her draught 13 ft 6 in.
Britain’s Passenger Ports
Apart from the great centres such as London, Glasgow and Southampton, which handle mainly ocean-going traffic, there are many interesting ports dealing with the cross-Channel packets which ply regularly to and from Great Britain. Shipping Wonders of the World has already dealt with several of the larger ports in the British Isles. More familiar, probably, to many readers are the smaller ports from which vessels sail on the various routes to the Continent: Dover, Folkestone, Harwich and Newhaven. Liverpool, too, in addition to its other traffic, has a packet service to Belfast, another to Dublin, and yet another to the Isle of Man. Another packet port, rather surprisingly, is Newcastle-on-Tyne, which is connected by fast motorship with Bergen, in Norway. Though not so spectacular as London, Southampton, and the other great ports, these packet ports are perhaps even better known to people whose business or pleasure takes them for short sea trips. In this chapter A C Hardy describes Britain’s passenger ports.
A Lancashire Type Schooner
SAILING INTO NEWLYN HARBOUR, Cornwall, in a fresh breeze. The Isabella is a two-masted Lancashire type schooner of 97 tons gross, registered at barrow. Her stern is of the type peculiar to the Irish Sea schooner. The Isabella was built at Barrow by
T. Ashburner in 1878. She has a length of 88 ft 6 in, a beam of 21 ft 3 in and a depth of 9 feet.
The Joseph Conrad
A TRAINING SHIP FOR FIFTY-TWO YEARS, the Joseph Conrad is now registered as a yacht. She was formerly the full-rigged ship, Georg Stage, built at Copenhagen in 1882 and rebuilt in 1906. She served as a Danish training ship and was bought by Mr Alan Villiers, an enthusiastic advocate of the value of sail training. In 1936 she was sailing round the world with a number of apprentices. The Joseph Conrad 203 tons gross, has a length of 100 ft 10 in, a beam of 25 ft 3 in and a depth of 13 ft 3 in.
This colour plate previously appeared on the cover of part 14.
(Attached to page 1421)
27 feet, with a corresponding draught of 15 ft 3 in. She was built at Clydebank in 1929 and is propelled by four steam turbines though single-reduction gearing.
Ports - 2
A TWIN-SCREW TURBINE STEAMER of 1,922 tons gross, the St Patrick is owned by the Fishguard and Rosslare Railway and Harbours Company and operates on the Great Western Railway services between Fishguard (Pembrokeshire) and Rosslare, Co. Wexford, Irish Free State., or between Weymouth (Dorset) and the Channel Islands. Built in Glasgow in 1930, the St Patrick has a length of 281 ft 4 in between perpendiculars, a beam of 41 ft 1 in and a moulded depth of 17 feet, with a corresponding draught of 14 feet.
REGISTERED AT HARWICH and owned by the London and North Eastern Railway, the Vienna is one of the vessels running nightly between Harwich and the Hook of Holland. A twin-screw vessel of 4,218 tons gross, she has a length of 350 ft 10 in, a beam of 50 ft 1 in and a moulded depth of
(Attached to page 1421)
The Battle of Tsushima
The Russian Baltic Fleet, under Vice-Admiral Rozhdestvenski, on its way from Europe to Vladivostok, was totally defeated on May 27 1905, by the Japanese Fleet, under Admiral Togo, in the Strait of Tsushima, at the entrance to the Sea of Japan. The Battle of Tsushima, described by Lieut.-Commander E Keble Chatterton, was the first decisive battle of the steamship age. It was a shattering defeat of Russia by Japan, and its effects were far-reaching. It demonstrated Japan’s efficiency as a naval power,and indirectly hastened the end of the old regime in Russia. It also showed how necessary it was for naval officers to be trained in the tactics of warfare at sea. This chapter is the sixth article in the series on Decisive Naval Actions. The article is concluded in part 46.
The Japanese Armoured Cruiser Nisshin
IN ADMIRAL TOGO’S FIRST SQUADRON was the Japanese armoured cruiser Nisshin, formerly the Moreno. She was launched for the Argentine Navy in 1903 and completed at Sestri Ponente, Italy, in 1904. She had a displacement tonnage of 7,700. Her length was 344 feet, her beam 59 ft 9 in and her draught 24 ft 3 in. This vessel was one of twelve Japanese ships fit to lie in line-of-battle.