When steam propulsion came into general use many sailing vessels were equipped with auxiliary engines. The modern diesel engine is now often fitted to small sailing craft and has thus helped to prevent the disappearance of sail from the seas
The Almirante Saldanha, a four-
FOR many years, when steamships were still in an early stage of development, they carried sails and were really auxiliary steamships. It was a long time before shipmasters and owners began to think solely in terms of steam. This attitude was due not to conservatism, but to the huge consumption of coal in steamships and also to the high standard of efficiency maintained by the sailing vessel. Such large quantities of coal were consumed by the early engines that steam was rejected by the British Admiralty because of the amount of space required for bunkers.
It was not until the triple-
No modern steamships are equipped with sails to-
The old auxiliary vessels of the British Navy marked the transition from sail to steam. The invention of the screw propeller was taken up by the Admiralty and applied to vessels that relied mainly upon canvas and not upon steam. Some of the ships had screws that could be lifted into a trunk built into the hull. This device enabled the retarding effect of the propeller to be avoided when the ship was under sail only. The sail-
During the Victorian era, when the Navy was not called upon to fight any great battles, sail drill was a supreme test of efficiency, and ships competed against one another for speed in setting and furling sail. Masts and yards slowly gave way to steam, although they were retained for a long while. In the latter part of the last century sloops were built with a full spread of canvas and the engines were steam auxiliaries.
A former U.S. naval vessel, the Nantucket, which was taken over by the Massachusetts Nautical School as a floating academy, is an interesting modern auxiliary. She is berthed at the Navy Yard, Charlestown, during the winter, and in the summer she goes cruising. In 1933 she sailed 3,326 miles, steamed 3,572 miles and covered an additional 2,397 miles under canvas and steam simultaneously. She crossed the Atlantic and visited several European ports, including Southampton.
In light airs a craft that is rigged fore and aft and proceeds under sail and power can point closer to the wind than if she were under sail only, and the sails steady a small craft in a lumpy sea. In crowded waters the skipper has to remember that the vessel must obey the rule of the road as applied to steam and not to sail. The small Dutch auxiliaries that come up London River and trade to many other British ports are noteworthy because when there is any wind they set their canvas, although a British skipper might not think the wind worth while.
THE DECK OF AN AUXILIARY YACHT, the Ma Mie, built by John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., at Hampton-
Sail was a trusted reserve of power for many of the vessels that made history. The Great Britain is an example. She was the first propeller-
On her first voyage to Australia she had 630 passengers and a crew of 137. On board her were gold and silver to the value of £1,000,000. When she was fewer than 900 miles from Cape Town (the Suez Canal was not then built), she ran short of coal. A gale was blowing, so all canvas was set and, helped by reduced steam, she sailed back to St. Helena, over a thousand miles away. She reached Melbourne at last, after a passage of eighty-
Later one mast and a funnel were taken from her rig. For many years, except when she served as a transport during the Crimean War (1854-
Pacific Trading Schooners
The auxiliary is to be found, therefore, in all parts of the world. She does not carry the huge bulk of the world’s freights in giant loads, but she can justify her existence. She sails into big harbours after the haughty liner and finds a corner for herself. She penetrates narrow rivers and shallow tidal creeks and lies alongside wharves at little ports that have neither the cargo nor the depth of water to offer a big vessel.
WITH ALL SAILS SET, the Japanese four-
Steam killed the big sailing ship, but the diesel engine has prolonged the life of the small sailing vessel. In industrial countries yachts are the only vessels now built depending solely upon sails. Unless yachts are intended for class-
The trading schooners in the Pacific Ocean are now mostly fitted with auxiliary engines. They use their sails on occasion, but often the deck load is so large that the mainsail or foresail cannot be set, as there is no clearance for the boom. In the coral islands the entrance to a lagoon is narrow and reef-
In islands that are not merely atolls, the harbours are often surrounded by cliffs and mountains, leaving a narrow entrance. If the wind is fair a sailing vessel can enter, but she may find that the cliffs and mountains prevent any true wind from helping her.
THE FAMOUS GREAT BRITAIN was the first propeller-
So dangerous are certain of these harbours that in the days of sail the schooners did not venture into them, but hove-
Lagoons are often so reef-
These schooners serve a useful purpose in world commerce, for they act as feeders to the great shipping lines. Their cargoes are discharged at a port on the routes between Australia and America, or between New Zealand and America, and are picked up by oceangoing ships. There is not enough freight at the outlying islands to warrant a large vessel making a special call. The auxiliary engine enables a schooner to go against the trade wind to the Pacific ports of America if the freight justifies the voyage. She need not go far out of her course to pick up the westerlies, and she can sail back before the trade wind.
Large sailing vessels are still being built, with auxiliary engines, for training purposes. Many foreign nations insist that officers in their navies and their merchant services shall be trained in sail. They believe that sail-
Experience in Sail
A good example of an up-
The Almirante Saldanha has sixteen transverse water-
Her auxiliary engine is a four-
A clutch fitted on the line shafting enables the propeller to be disengaged from the engine so that it can revolve idly when the vessel is under sail and thus reduce the propeller’s drag. With four masts, four yards on the foremast, booms and gaffs on the main, mizen and jigger masts, a long bowsprit and jib-
A MODERN FOUR-
The electrical equipment consists of generators, motors and control gear. The electrically-
Denmark is another country that has a modern auxiliary training ship. The Georg Stage was completed in 1935 by the Frederikshavns Vaerft & Flydekok. She is a three-
Many other foreign countries use auxiliary sailing vessels as training ships. Poland has an auxiliary three-
Of the four Japanese auxiliary training vessels, the largest are the Nippon Maru and the Kaiwa Maru. These four-
A 42 FEET MOTOR YACHT on the River Thames. The Peter Pan was built and equipped with two 18 horse-
The Magdalene Vinnen is a German example of the big trading auxiliary. She is a four-
Apart from such modern vessels there are many auxiliaries which are “old-
Not all the old warriors have changed over to the diesel engine. Some, though propelled by steam, are not auxiliaries, but “conversions”. The full-
CONVERTED FROM A SAILING YACHT into an auxiliary motor vessel, the Charmian was equipped in 1935 with two A.E.C. six-
The Estonian steamship Nemrac was once the four-
The Dutch auxiliaries are numerous, and the Dutch shipyards evolved a type that at one time severely competed with British coasters, both sail and steam. The auxiliary of this type ranges from about 75 to about 250 tons and a diesel engine gives her a speed of about 9 knots. The owner is generally the Captain, and the crew of the larger vessels consists of a helmsman, three hands and a boy, who is the cook. These motor sailing ships are able to do all the work a Thames barge can do, and have a far better turn of speed on an average and do not have to wait for a wind. They are the motor lorries of the North Sea and some of them are floating homes as well.
A MARINE OIL ENGINE of the type often fitted as auxiliary to sailing vessels. The port view of the A.E.C. six-
One of the oldest British vessels now an auxiliary is the ketch Ceres, which was built at Salcombe, Devon, in 1811 and rebuilt in 1865. Some years ago she was fitted with an auxiliary motor to enable her to keep her place in the coastal trade of southwest England. She has a tonnage of 44.
Fishing boats are now either full-
Motors have altered this branch of the fishing industry considerably. They have extended the radius of small craft and lessened the perils of a dangerous calling. In a calm the fisherman can get quickly under power to and from the fishing ground. If he is caught on a lee shore by a gale he has a far better chance of getting off it quickly than if he had only sail. At the same time, the sail is useful to steady the rolling of a small boat and saves fuel when the wind is fair.
Among small craft the marine motor has stimulated yachting and few cruising yachts are now built for sail only; nearly all are auxiliary vessels. The auxiliary may be a sailing yacht with a small engine as an auxiliary to the sails, or a sailing motor-
THE SAIL AREA of the 78-
Designing a vessel which will travel as well under sail as under power is a problem that has attracted many naval architects. The most that can be expected, however, is a compromise. A sailing vessel, whether she is a little fishing boat or a full-
It is comparatively easy to place a motor into a sailing vessel and use it as an auxiliary to obtain a moderate speed. It is impossible to obtain the speed that would be developed if the same engine were installed in a vessel designed specially as a steamship or a motor vessel. On the other hand, modern steamships, motor ships and motor yachts are not designed to sail. The area that a big liner exposes to a beam wind, for example, is greater than the sail area of a full-
In British coastal waters the most successful small sailing vessel is the Thames barge, which is still able to compete with steam and oil. There are, however, several Thames barges that have become auxiliaries, and have been operated successfully for a number of years as traders. The usual practice is to install the engine aft. A paraffin engine of 40 horse-
Converted Ship's Boats
To avoid the drag of the propeller when the yacht is under sail, several methods are employed. One is to have a two-
A noteworthy development of the auxiliary is the application of the petrol engine to a former ship’s boat. Many years ago men with sea-
Some of these craft are former cutters, whalers and pinnaces which in their prime belonged to the Royal Navy. A few were formerly lifeboats of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. These craft exist in every port on the coast and in places on rivers many miles from the sea. Each “conversion” is a true auxiliary in that she is neither a yacht nor a motor yacht; each reflects the individuality of the owner.
A STEEL THREE-
[From part 21, published 30 June 1936]
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